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  • Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) is a viral vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals.


  • FMD is the most contagious animal disease.


  • FMD is a trans-boundary disease with regional and global dimensions.


  • FMD causes serious production losses and a major constraint to international trade in livestock products Mortality occurs in young stock particularly lambs and piglets and vulnerable animals.


  • It negatively affects the fertility rate.


  • The main reservoirs of the virus are buffalo and cattle.